top of page


This chapter begins the chiastic arrangement of the book of Daniel as noted below which connects the prophetic chapters.

What is a CHIASTIC structure? It is a literary device or pattern in which two ideas or more are presented and then represented in a reverse order so as to convey a more complete meaning.


The simplest chiasmus is found in Mark 2:27

"And he said unto them, The sabbath (A) was made for man (B), and not man (B') for the sabbath: (A')" conveying the idea that the Sabbath was made after man was created and not vice versa, hence man has no authority over it except for the one who made the Sabbath. The Son of man, therefore, is Lord of the Sabbath Day as he made it for man and it is His prerogative and not man's to decide how the Sabbath is to be kept holy  which was the contention in Mark chapter 2.



Daniel chapter 2 presents the image of a MAN (A)

Daniel chapter 7 presents the vision of BEASTS (B)

Daniel chapter 8 presents the vision of BEASTS (B')

Daniel chapter 11 presents the MEN who ruled (A')

The chapters are not to be treated in isolation but are interconnected so as to arrive at the correct interpretation of the prophecy. In fact if we took Daniel 7 in isolation, it would be impossible to arrive at a correct understanding of what the beasts represented. But with the chiastic arrangement of the book we can cross correlate chapters 2, 7, 8 & 11 and identify what these beasts represent and the world kingdoms outlined in Daniel chapter 2


1 And in the second year of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar Nebuchadnezzar dreamed dreams, wherewith his spirit was troubled, and his sleep brake from him.

2 Then the king commanded to call the magicians, and the astrologers, and the sorcerers, and the Chaldeans, for to shew the king his dreams. So they came and stood before the king.

3 And the king said unto them, I have dreamed a dream, and my spirit was troubled to know the dream.

4 Then spake the Chaldeans to the king in Syriack, O king, live for ever: tell thy servants the dream, and we will shew the interpretation.

5 The king answered and said to the Chaldeans, The thing is gone from me: if ye will not make known unto me the dream, with the interpretation thereof, ye shall be cut in pieces, and your houses shall be made a dunghill.

6 But if ye shew the dream, and the interpretation thereof, ye shall receive of me gifts and rewards and great honour: therefore shew me the dream, and the interpretation thereof.

7 They answered again and said, Let the king tell his servants the dream, and we will shew the interpretation of it.

8 The king answered and said, I know of certainty that ye would gain the time, because ye see the thing is gone from me.

9 But if ye will not make known unto me the dream, there is but one decree for you: for ye have prepared lying and corrupt words to speak before me, till the time be changed: therefore tell me the dream, and I shall know that ye can shew me the interpretation thereof.

10 The Chaldeans answered before the king, and said, There is not a man upon the earth that can shew the king's matter: therefore there is no king, lord, nor ruler, that asked such things at any magician, or astrologer, or Chaldean.

11 And it is a rare thing that the king requireth, and there is none other that can shew it before the king, except the gods, whose dwelling is not with flesh.

12 For this cause the king was angry and very furious, and commanded to destroy all the wise men of Babylon.

13 And the decree went forth that the wise men should be slain; and they sought Daniel and his fellows to be slain.

14 Then Daniel answered with counsel and wisdom to Arioch the captain of the king's guard, which was gone forth to slay the wise men of Babylon:

15 He answered and said to Arioch the king's captain, Why is the decree so hasty from the king? Then Arioch made the thing known to Daniel.

16 Then Daniel went in, and desired of the king that he would give him time, and that he would shew the king the interpretation.

17 Then Daniel went to his house, and made the thing known to Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah, his companions:

18 That they would desire mercies of the God of heaven concerning this secret; that Daniel and his fellows should not perish with the rest of the wise men of Babylon.

19 Then was the secret revealed unto Daniel in a night vision. Then Daniel blessed the God of heaven.

20 Daniel answered and said, Blessed be the name of God for ever and ever: for wisdom and might are his:

21 And he changeth the times and the seasons: he removeth kings, and setteth up kings: he giveth wisdom unto the wise, and knowledge to them that know understanding:

22 He revealeth the deep and secret things: he knoweth what is in the darkness, and the light dwelleth with him.

23 I thank thee, and praise thee, O thou God of my fathers, who hast given me wisdom and might, and hast made known unto me now what we desired of thee: for thou hast now made known unto us the king's matter.

24 Therefore Daniel went in unto Arioch, whom the king had ordained to destroy the wise men of Babylon: he went and said thus unto him; Destroy not the wise men of Babylon: bring me in before the king, and I will shew unto the king the interpretation.

25 Then Arioch brought in Daniel before the king in haste, and said thus unto him, I have found a man of the captives of Judah, that will make known unto the king the interpretation.

26 The king answered and said to Daniel, whose name wasBelteshazzar, Art thou able to make known unto me the dream which I have seen,

and the interpretation thereof?

27 Daniel answered in the presence of the king, and said, The secret which the king hath demanded cannot the wise men, the astrologers, the magicians, the soothsayers, shew unto the king;

28 But there is a God in heaven that revealeth secrets, and maketh known to the king Nebuchadnezzar what shall be in the latter days. Thy dream, and the visions of thy head upon thy bed, are these;

29 As for thee, O king, thy thoughts came into thy mind upon thy bed, what should come to pass hereafter: and he that revealeth secrets maketh known to thee what shall come to pass.

30 But as for me, this secret is not revealed to me for any wisdom that I have more than any living, but for their sakes that shall make known the interpretation to the king, and that thou mightest know the thoughts of thy heart.

31 Thou, O king, sawest, and behold a great image. This great image, whose brightness was excellent, stood before thee; and the form thereof was terrible.

32 This image's head was of fine gold, his breast and his arms of silver, his belly and his thighs of brass,

33 His legs of iron, his feet part of iron and part of clay.

34 Thou sawest till that a stone was cut out without hands, which smote the image upon his feet that were of iron and clay, and brake them to pieces.

35 Then was the iron, the clay, the brass, the silver, and the gold, broken to pieces together, and became like the chaff of the summer threshingfloors; and the wind carried them away, that no place was found for them: and the stone that smote the image became a great mountain, and filled the whole earth.

36 This is the dream; and we will tell the interpretation thereof before the king.

37 Thou, O king, art a king of kings: for the God of heaven hath given thee a kingdom, power, and strength, and glory.

38 And wheresoever the children of men dwell, the beasts of the field and the fowls of the heaven hath he given into thine hand, and hath made thee ruler over them all. Thou art this head of gold.

39 And after thee shall arise another kingdom inferior to thee, and another third kingdom of brass, which shall bear rule over all the earth.

40 And the fourth kingdom shall be strong as iron: forasmuch as iron breaketh in pieces and subdueth all things: and as iron that breaketh all these, shall it break in pieces and bruise.

41 And whereas thou sawest the feet and toes, part of potters' clay, and part of iron, the kingdom shall be divided; but there shall be in it of the strength of the iron, forasmuch as thou sawest the iron mixed with miry clay.

42 And as the toes of the feet were part of iron, and part of clay, so the kingdom shall be partly strong, and partly broken.

43 And whereas thou sawest iron mixed with miry clay, they shall mingle themselves with the seed of men: but they shall not cleave one to another, even as iron is not mixed with clay.

44 And in the days of these kings shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom, which shall never be destroyed: and the kingdom shall not be left to other people, but it shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms, and it shall stand for ever.

45 Forasmuch as thou sawest that the stone was cut out of the mountain without hands, and that it brake in pieces the iron, the brass, the clay, the silver, and the gold; the great God hath made known to the king what shall come to pass hereafter: and the dream is certain, and the interpretation thereof sure.

46 Then the king Nebuchadnezzar fell upon his face, and worshipped Daniel, and commanded that they should offer an oblation and sweet odours unto him.

47 The king answered unto Daniel, and said, Of a truth it is, that your God is a God of gods, and a Lord of kings, and a revealer of secrets, seeing thou couldest reveal this secret.

48 Then the king made Daniel a great man, and gave him many great gifts, and made him ruler over the whole province of Babylon, and chief of the governors over all the wise men of Babylon.

49 Then Daniel requested of the king, and he set Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, over the affairs of the province of Babylon: but Daniel sat in the gate of the king.



Head of Gold.png

37 Thou, O king, art a king of kings: for the God of heaven hath given thee a kingdom, power, and strength, and glory.

38 And wheresoever the children of men dwell, the beasts of the field and the fowls of the heaven hath he given into thine hand, and hath made thee ruler over them all. Thou art this head of gold.

"King", "Kingdom" & "Beasts" are used interchangeably in prophetic interpretation.

The four beasts of Daniel 7 are said to be four Kings in vs 17. But the four beasts are also said to be kingdoms in vs 23. Hence beasts, Kings and Kingdoms are used interchangeably. While Daniel refers to King Nebuchadnezzar as the head of Gold, he is stating that the Kingdom of Babylon is the Head of Gold.


Chest of Silver.png

39 And after thee shall arise another kingdom inferior to thee, ...

The use of the word "Kingdom" here means Babylon is the first kingdom. Babylon fell to the Medes and Persians. The latter becomes the second kingdom of the metal image. The story is told in Daniel chapter 5:26-28

"This is the interpretation of the thing: MENE; God hath numbered thy kingdom, and finished it. TEKEL; Thou art weighed in the balances, and art found wanting. PERES; Thy kingdom is divided, and given to the Medes and Persians."


Torso of Brass.png


Legs of iron.png

Historically, Rome followed the Grecian Empire as it gradually conquered the remnants of Grecia after Alexander the great died. Rome is not specifically identified in the Book of Daniel, nevertheless, Daniel leaves us important characteristics of this power to enable us to confidently identify the Rome of the Caesars as the fourth kingdom of the Daniel 2 metal man image.  The other point is that Rome as a power was not in existence during the time of Daniel and hence could not be called out as such so the Lord leaves clues to the puzzle in Daniel chapter 8. Verses 8 & 9 of Daniel 8 comes to our aid.  This power conquered the pleasant land - Palestine. 

8 Therefore the he goat waxed very great: and when he was strong, the great horn was broken; and for it came up four notable ones toward the four winds of heaven.


  • The Little horn was first mentioned in Daniel chapter 7

  • Hence, it is the same Little horn symbol here in Daniel chapter 8 with added features

  • The Little horn of Daniel 7 arose out of the head of the fourth beast.

  • Important to remember that all horns in prophecy arise out of the head of a beast.

  • Eleven horns arose from the head of the 4th beast in Daniel 7

  • Two horns are present on the head of the Ram in Daniel 8

  • Five horns arose from the head of the He-Goat in Daniel 8

  • Horns do not arise out of another horn.

  • Antiochus Epiphanes cannot be the Little horn of Daniel 8 & at the same time be the Syrian horn

  • Horns arise out of a beast's head, hence symbolically, the 4th beast of Daniel 7 is here in Daniel 8

  • The fourth beast is not mentioned specifically but is represented by its Little horn here in Daniel 8

  • Hence, the Little horn in Daniel 8 is symbolic of both the 4th beast and the Little horn of Daniel 7

  • The Little horn of Daniel 8, therefore, represents both pagan Rome and Papal Rome  


  1. The Little Horn comes out of one of the four winds and NOT from another horn as noted above - v 9

  2. The Little horn waxed exceeding great compared to the Ram (great) & the He-Goat (very great) - v 9

  3. The little horn conquered toward the South, toward the East & toward the Pleasant land - v 9

  4. The Little horn waxed great to the host of heaven - v 10

  5. The Little horn cast down the host & the stars to the ground - v 10  cf the He-Goat in v 7 

  6. The Little horn stamped upon the host & the stars - v 10  cf the He-Goat in v 7 

  7. The Little horn magnified himself toward the prince of the host - v 11

  8. From the Little horn, the daily was taken away (taken up, lifted up or exalted) - v 11

  9. The place of the Little horn's sanctuary was cast down - v 11

  10. An host was given the Little horn against the Daily - v 12

  11. The Little horn cast down the truth to the ground - v 12

  12. The Little horn practised and prospered - v 12

  13. The Little horn trod underfoot the sanctuary - v 13

  14. The Little horn trod underfoot the host - v 13

  15. The Little horn is the King of fierce countenance - v 23

  16. The Little horn understands dark sentences - v 23. had a different language - Deut 28:49,50

  17. The Little horn would destroy the mighty & holy people - v 24

  18. The Little horn would magnify himself - v 25

  19. The Little horn would stand up against the prince of princes - v 25 Be against Christ. 

  20. The Little horn would be broken without hand - v 25 - be destroyed supernaturally. 


The Little Horn of Daniel 8 is Rome in both its pagan and papal phases.

Pagan Rome transitions to Papal Rome in Daniel 2, 7, 8 and 11 - see those studies on this site.

1. Rome came from the West, one of the directions of the compass, four winds of heaven - v 9

2. Rome became exceeding great compared to the Ram (great v 4) & the He-Goat (very great v 8) - v 9

3. Rome conquered South (Egypt 168 BC, made a province 30 BC)

3. Rome conquered East (Syria 65 BC)

3. Rome conquered the Pleasant land (Palestine 63 BC), Ps 106:24, Glorious land (Dan 11:16)

4. Rome waxed great toward the "host of heaven" - destroyed God's people - v 10

4. Michael is the prince of this host - Dan 10:21

4. The original, "Prince of the Host" occurs in Joshua 5:14 - the host is God's people, his church  

5. Rome, like the He-goat to the Ram, cast God's people to the ground - persecuted them - v 10

6. Rome, like the He-goat to the Ram, stamped upon God's people - destroyed them - v 10

7. Rome magnified itself toward the Prince of the host - Rome killed Christ, the prince of the host

8. From pagan Rome, the Daily was lifted up, exalted. - see study on "The Daily"

8. Papal Rome took up the spirit of self exaltation of paganism.

9. Pagan Rome gave up its sanctuary, the City of Rome & Papal Rome took over the city.

10 The host here is armies, which helped Papal Rome come to power - see Daniel 11:31

11. Papal Rome cast the truth to the ground - much of Papal Rome's doctrines are non-biblical

12. Papal Rome practised & prospered - the wealth of the Papacy is astounding unlike the lowly Jesus

13. Pagan & Papal Rome both trod underfoot the sanctuary.

13. Pagan Rome destroyed the literal sanctuary.

13. Papal Rome substituted its own form of sanctuary service, including the Confessional.

14. Pagan Rome trod underfoot the host - Rome killed Christians (fed to the Lions or crucified them)

14. Papal Rome trod underfoot the host - Papal Rome killed millions of Christians - Dan 7:25, Rev 13:7

15. Rome is the King of fierce countenance.

16. Rome spoke a different language, Latin, which the Jews did not understand. - see Deut 28:49,50

17. Rome, both pagan and papal, destroyed God's people.

18. Papal Rome would magnify himself  above the God of heaven, even changing the 7th day Sabbath.

19. Papal Rome stood up against Christ, is the Antichrist system of prophecy

20. Papal Rome will be destroyed, or "broken without hand" by Christ at the second coming.



Feet of iron and clay.png

The fourth kingdom, Rome, is represented by the legs of Iron in the Daniel 2 image.

The Iron continues into the feet of the image, hence is still Rome. However, the feet are not just Iron. There is an addition to the IRON in the form of CLAY.

What does the Clay represent?


Isaiah 64:8 "But now, O LORD, thou art our father; we are the clay, and thou our potter; and we all are the work of thy hand." cf Jeremiah 18:6

The Clay represents Bible religion united with the state (Iron). But this is no ordinary clay. It is specifically the clay of the Bible, in other words, professed Christianity in union with the state.

  • The Iron represents Rome.

  • The  Clay represents professed Christianity.

  • Therefore, the feet of Iron & Clay represents Papal Rome, the Roman Catholic Church.

  • The Iron & Clay represents the union of church and state.

Daniel 2 .png
bottom of page